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Aggregation, Group-by, and Joins

Rel Primer: Aggregations, Group-By, and Joins

This Primer covers quantification, aggregations, group-by aggregations, and joins in Rel.


This Rel Primer section focuses on common database operations in Rel: quantification, aggregations, group-by aggregations, and joins.

See Basic Syntax for an introduction to the basic syntax of Rel, a prerequisite for this Rel Primer section.


Existential Quantification

Logical statements often require a variable to exist with a specific value such that the statement holds. You can interpret this statement in English as “there exists” or “for some.” Expressing such a requirement is called existential quantification.

In Rel, existential quantification is expressed with exists. The following example expresses the logical statement:

There exist some values for x and y such that the tuple (x, y) can be found in the relation myrel and y is larger than x:

// read query
def myrel = { (1, 8); (2, 4); (3, 2); (4, 1) }
def output {
    exists(x, y :
        myrel(x, y) and y > x

Other ways to indicate existential quantification are:

  • The keyword from,
  • The symbol _ (underscore) or the relation Any.

The example above using from reads:

// read query
def myrel = { (1, 8); (2, 4); (3, 2); (4, 1) }
def output {
    myrel(x, y) and y > x
    from x, y

The symbol _ can be used as an existentially quantified new variable that will match anything.

This is useful if you are not interested in all columns in a relation.

// read query
def myrel = { (1, 8); (2, 4); (3, 2); (4, 1) }
def output(x) {
    myrel(_, x)

Separate occurrences of _ in an expression are independent and don’t affect each other.

The example above requests all values x that occur in the second column in myrel. The symbol _ can be replaced with Any, because myrel(Any, x) is equivalent to myrel(y, x) and Any(y). Using Any is the recommended way to express schema information such that the data type can be anything.

Universal Quantification

Rel also supports universal quantification, provided the quantified variable has a finite domain:

// read query
def output("yes") {
    forall(x in {4; 5; 6} : x < 10)

In general, to restrict the domain being quantified over, use in to restrict single variables, and where to restrict combinations of variables.

// read query
def output {
        x in range[1, 10, 1], y in range[1, 80, 1] where y = x^2 :
        9*x - y > 0

In the example, the forall statement tests that, for all numbers x up to 10 and y up to 80 where y is the square of x, the expression 9*x-y is positive. This is the case, so the response is true (()).

If the domain of the variable(s) is empty (false), the result is always true, regardless of the quantified formula:

// read query
def mydomain = {1; 2; 3; 4}
def output {
    forall(x where mydomain(x) and x < 0 : x > 10)

This must be so, because forall(x in D : F) is always equivalent to not exists(x in D: not F). If the domain D is empty, then exists(x in D: F) is false, regardless of F.


To demonstrate aggregations, you will import some basic information about soccer players from Spring 2021, store these data in a base relation (player_csv), and install a few derived relations, making them available for future use.

First, you can import the data and save them in a base relation:

// write query
def config:data = """
def config:schema = {
    (:name, "string");
    (:salary, "int");
    (:age, "int");
    (:plays_for, "string");
    (:nationality, "string")
def csv = load_csv[config]
def delete[:player_csv] = player_csv
def insert[:player_csv] = csv
def output = player_csv

In practice, config:data would be a file uploaded to a RAI worksheet as a string relation, or config:path would be specified to point to a CSV file location. See CSV Import for details.

Now you can install some derived relations:

// model
def player(prop, name, val) =
    player_csv(prop, row, val)
    and player_csv(:name, row, name) from row
def name(x) = player(_, x, _)
def salary = player:salary
def age = player:age
def plays_for = player:plays_for
def nationality = player:nationality
def team(t) = player:plays_for(_, t) // Set of teams

Once installed, these definitions are available for querying — see Working With Models. For an explanation of _ and from see Existential Quantification. Expressions like player:salary use the Rel module syntax.


player_csv is a base relation, created by the write query that loaded the CSV data and inserted them into player_csv, above. The relations player, name, salary, etc. are derived relations, sometimes known as views, based on the base relation data. The model transaction above makes them available to subsequent queries.

Since player is now installed, you can query it:

// read query
def output = player

The Last Argument

When writing a table, it is natural to put the keys first and the values last: players and their age (as above); players and their salary; or graph edges and their weight.

Rel provides a number of common operations that operate on the last argument of a relation, For example, the Standard Library includes utilities for the max, min, sum, and average of a relation, taking the last argument of the relation as the value to be aggregated. The basic salary stats for the installed player relation can be computed as follows:

// read query
def output = { (:sum, sum[salary]);
               (:average, average[salary]);
               (:count, count[salary]);
               (:argmax, argmax[salary]) }

Note that these two numbers are different:

// read query
def output = count[salary], count[x : salary(_, x)]

count[salary] is the number of rows in the salary relation. The relation x : salary(_, x) contains the unique values found in the second argument. As different players have the same salary, the second number is smaller. This is important to keep in mind when computing averages and sums, as you will see below in the section on group-by aggregations.


When computing aggregations, make sure you include keys, to avoid conflating equal values.

Aggregating Over Empty Relations

In most cases, aggregating over an empty set gives an empty set, rather than, say, 0. For example, count[x in name : salary[x] < 0] is {}, rather than {0}. This is a design choice that simplifies the semantics of the language, and often results in more sparse intermediate data, where the default (0) does not have to be represented.

If you want to include the default, you can use the override operator, left_override, also known as <++, from the Rel Standard Library.

For example:

// read query
def output = c in {"RM"; "BFC"; "Chelsea"} :
             sum[p where plays_for(p, c) : salary[p] ] <++ 0

Without <++ 0, the row for “Chelsea” would not be included in the results. For more on <++, see Advanced Syntax.


Many Rel expressions result in a relation that has value keys first, and one or more metrics that follow. When writing these expressions in a Rel query or model, you can choose to have the bindings go first and the values — or metrics — go last, or vice versa, depending on what feels more natural. This will not change the result, as shown below.

Consider an example from Basic Syntax, which uses :, so the bindings go first and the values go last:

// read query
def mydomain = range[1, 5, 1]
def output = x in mydomain, y in mydomain where x + y = 5 : x-y, x+y, x*y

You can move the bindings, which include the where and in constraints, to the other side of the : and still have an equivalent expression. The following section shows how to do this.

Using for or |

The Rel construct for can be used instead of : to put the values first and the bindings last, which sometimes makes things easier to read — for example, when the where condition is itself a complex expression. Note that the result is exactly the same.

// read query
def mydomain = range[1, 5, 1]
def output = x-y, x+y, x*y for x in mydomain, y in mydomain where x+y = 5

Even though they read differently, these two definitions are equivalent. In both cases, the values of x and y will appear first in the resulting tuples.

Going back to aggregations, suppose you want to compute the average salary of players under 30.

By choosing to use : or for, Rel lets you put the condition first and the metric — the value being aggregated, in this case, salary — last, or the metric first and the condition last.

Condition first, metric second, using : :

// read query
def output = average[x in name where age[x] < 30 : salary[x] ]

Metric first, condition last, using for (or its alias |) :

// read query
def output = average[salary[x] for x in name where age[x] < 30]

The results are the same.

In general, for an expression Expr and bindings b, Expr for b is equivalent to b : Expr. For a more mathematical notation, Expr for b can also be written as Expr | b. For example:

// read query
def output = 100 * (x + y) | x in {1; 2}, y in {1; 3} where x + y = 3

You can read | as “such that”, remembering that the bound variables are included at the beginning of the resulting tuples, which is what you want for correct aggregation results.


In aggregations, use b : e (bindings at the left) or e for b (or e | b, bindings at the right) to make sure you are not conflating keys that have the same metric value. Use from only if you want to quantify away keys, and possibly remove duplicate values as a result.


Summary: e | b is equivalent to e for b, which is equivalent to b : e . In all three cases, the result keeps the tuples from b, making it safe for aggregation.


The : operator lets you do group-by aggregations easily. For example, to see the average age for each team:

// read query
def output = x in team : average[p where plays_for(p, x): age[p] ]

Note: The in team clause is not really needed, since plays_for constrains the values of x in the same way.

If you prefer, you can write this relation as:

def output[x in team] = average[p where plays_for(p, x): age[p] ]

As this is more readable, this Primer adopts this style below.

To see the average salary and count, grouped by age:

// read query
def output[a] = average[p where age(p, a) : salary[p]], count[p : age(p, a)]

Average salary and count, grouped by nationality:

// read query
def output[n] = average[p where nationality(p, n) : salary[p]],
                count[p : nationality(p, n)]

for and from

When aggregating, you will usually need for, or its equivalent |. For example:

// read query
def output:right = sum[salary[x] for x in name
                       where plays_for(x, "RM") and age[x] < 30]
def output:wrong = sum[salary[x] from x in name
                       where plays_for(x, "RM") and age[x] < 30]

Module notation is used here to make right and wrong subrelations of output. See Modules.

There are three players satisfying the condition, all with a salary of 7. The first aggregation takes the sum of this relation:

// read query
def output = salary[x] for x in name where plays_for(x, "RM") and age[x] < 30

The second aggregation, which existentially quantifies away the player, just takes the sum of the relation {7}.


Use for to keep the variables and from to existentially quantify them away.

Joining Relations

In database parlance, a join combines columns from different tables to build a new one, based on common elements in the rows of each table. In Rel, this corresponds to defining new relations, based on common elements between the tuples in the joined relations.

It is simple to join relations in Rel using and or ,.

For example, to get a list of players with their team and nationality, you can join the plays_for and nationality relations:

// read query
def output(player, team, country) = plays_for(player, team) and
                                    nationality(player, country)

You can use from to existentially quantify away variables you do not want in the result — see Existential Quantification. For example, if you just want to see the nationalities playing for each team, you can write:

// read query
def output(team, country) = plays_for(player, team) and
                            nationality(player, country) from player


This article has covered common database operations as expressed in Rel: quantification, aggregations, group-by aggregations, and joins. For more in this Rel Primer series, see Advanced Syntax.

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